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Terminology and

  • Research Products
    There are four different types of research products in the OpenAIRE Research Graph:
    • Publications
    • Research data
    • Research software
    • Other research products.
    We deduplicate (merge) different records of research products and keep the metadata of all instances.

    Research products intended for human reading (published articles, pre-prints, conference papers, presentations, technical reports, etc.)

    Research data
    The sources from which the description of the research data has been collected reflect and support their own granularity, we do not define it.

    Research software
    Source code or software package developed and/or used in a research context

    Other research product
    Anything that does not fall in the previous categories (e.g. workflow, methods, protocols)
  • We either inherit the attributes of entities via entries in the harvested metadata records or automatically generate them using our inference system (text and data mining algorithms).


    For research products, this refers to the affiliated organizations of its authors

    For projects: the organizations participating in the project (i.e. beneficiaries of the grant)

    We are improving the organization database with the use of our OpenOrgs tool. It allows curators to disambiguate organizations (merge different names of the same organization) and identify parent-child relationships (schools, departments, etc.).


    The country of the organization.

    Country code mapping:


    Funders that have joined OpenAIRE, i.e. their project data have gone through a validation process.

    You can visit if you would like to explore the research products and projects of all funders in OpenAIRE (the list of funders can be seen under the "Funder" Filter shown on the left side of the page).

    For funder who want to join OpenAIRE:


    The sub-type of a research outcome (e.g., a publication can be a pre-print, conference proceeding, article, etc.)

    Resource type mapping: (click on the code to see the specific types for each result type)

    Access mode or access rights

    The best available (across all instances) access rights of a research product

    Types (by best available):

    Open: Open Access

    Embargo: Closed for a specific period of time, then open.

    Restricted: Definition of restricted may vary by data source, it may refer to access rights being given to registered users, potentially behind a paywall.

    Closed: Closed access

    CC license

    A Creative Commons copyright license (

    PID (persistent identifier)

    A long-lasting reference to a resource


    Related research community, initiative or infrastructure.

    The scientific journal an article is published in.

    The publisher of the venue (journal, book, etc.) of a research product.

    Data sources (content providers)

    The different data sources ingested in the OpenAIRE Research Graph.

    Data Source Types:
    • Repositories
    • Open Access Publishers & Journals
    • Aggregators
    • Entity Registries
    • Journal Aggregators
    • CRIS (Current Research Information System)

    Information systems where scientists upload the bibliographic metadata and payloads of their research products (e.g. PDFs of their scientific articles, CSVs of their data, archive with their software), due to obligations from their organizations, their funders, or due to community practices (e.g. ArXiv, Europe PMC, Zenodo).

    Open Access Publishers & Journals
    Information systems of open access publishers or relative journals, which offer bibliographic metadata and PDFs of their published articles.

    Information systems that collect descriptive metadata about research products from multiple sources in order to enable cross-data source discovery of given research products (e,g, DataCite, BASE, DOAJ).

    Entity Registries
    Information systems created with the intent of maintaining authoritative registries of given entities in the scholarly communication, such as OpenDOAR for the institutional repositories, re3data for the data repositories, CORDA and other funder databases for projects and funding information.

    CRIS (Current Research Information System)
    Information systems adopted by research and academic organizations to keep track of their research administration records and relative results; examples of CRIS content are articles or research data funded by projects, their principal investigators, facilities acquired thanks to funding, etc.
  • All attributes in this tab are constructed by us, with the methodology presented below.

    How we build it

    Journal Business Models

    Fully Open Access (OA)

    A journal that publishes only in open access.

    We follow Unpaywall’s approach on defining fully Open Access journals and publishers and we construct the lists of the latter using Unpaywall data.

    In brief, a journal is fully Open Access if one or more of the following occur:

    1. It is in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
    2. It has a known fully OA Publisher (curated list).
    3. It only publishes OA articles.


    A journal that charges for access to its articles.

    Journals without any open access articles.


    A subscription journal where some of its articles are open access.

    Journals with open access articles that are not fully OA journals.


    "A Transformative Journal is a subscription/hybrid journal that is actively committed to transitioning to a fully Open Access journal.

    In addition, a Transformative Journal must:

    • gradually increase the share of Open Access content; and
    • offset subscription income from payments for publishing services (to avoid double payments)."

    Source: Plan S initiative

    We identify Transformative Journals by ISSN matching with the publicly available Transformative Journals data from Plan S initiative.

    Journal APC Business Models

    Diamond OA

    A fully OA journal that does not charge article processing charges (APCs).

    In other words, fully OA journals are either diamond, or charge APCs.

    We obtain APC data from DOAJ using DOAJ’s Public Data Dump (an exportable version of the journal metadata). We used it to determine whether a particular fully OA journal charges APCs.

    Routes to Open Access (OA)

    Green OA

    An open access scientific publication deposited in a repository

    As in definition

    Gold OA

    A scientific publication published in a fully OA journal.

    We define fully OA journals above.

    Hybrid OA

    An open access scientific publication published in a hybrid journal with an open license.

    We define hybrid journals above.

    At this point we consider only CC licenses “open”. We are currently working on cleaning non-CC licenses as well to identify other open ones.

    In principle, this means that we may be underestimating the number of hybrid OA articles and overestimating the number of bronze.

    Bronze OA

    An open access scientific publication published in a hybrid journal without an open license.



    The number of downloads of a publication’s full text in a specific time frame, from a given set of data sources.

    We utilize the usage data for the downloads from OpenAIRE’s Usage Counts service that harvests it from a set of datasources. The time range of available downloads varies for each datasource.

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OpenAIRE has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements No. 777541 and 101017452
  license  Unless otherwise indicated, all materials created by OpenAIRE are licenced under CC ATTRIBUTION 4.0 INTERNATIONAL LICENSE.
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